Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major independent risk factor predictive of sight-threatening thyroid eye disease (ST-TED), and alone or in combination with smoking may predict the worsening of visual function in patients with TED, according to a study.
In this retrospective cohort study including 202 consecutive patients with TED, 24% of patients had DM and 32% had a history of smoking. Diabetes mellitus and a history of smoking were significant risk factors for the development of ST-TED and dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON), according to Cox's proportional hazards, with older age being a risk factor for DON. Having DM increased the risk of developing bilateral ST-TED.
According to a linear mixed model used to predict longitudinal interaction between risk factors, patients with DM were likely to have worsening of visual function; a history of smoking heightened this adverse outcome.
Rath S, Pattnaik M, Tripathy D, et al. Sight-Threatening Thyroid Eye Disease: Role of Diabetes Mellitus and Interaction with Other Risk Factors. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2020; DOI: 10.1097/IOP.0000000000001871. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33060509.